Pakistan Real Estate Market Analysis and Forecasts 2024

Pakistan Real Estate Market Analysis and Forecasts 2024

This is an article about “Pakistan Real Estate Market Analysis and Forecasts 2024”. In this piece of writing you will find information about Pakistan's real estate market value and its contribution to GDP and economy. Moreover, how the real estate market in Pakistan deals with the present mix of opportunities and challenges. Government reforms, infrastructure development, housing demand, foreign investment. Furthermore, how Pakistan's real estate market creates opportunities for real estate professionals and real estate investments.

Currently, Pakistan's real estate market analysis and forecasts for 2024 show that it is under the huge influence of political instability and economic crisis as  external factors. It includes political instability, poor economic growth, and a lack of strategic policies in the real estate sector.

Introduction of Pakistan Real Estate Industry

Pakistan's real estate market is the prime industry in the country. It is significant in the Pakistani economy, playing a vital role in driving economic growth, employment generation, and infrastructure development. It includes various types of properties, residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural land. According to the State Bank of Pakistan, The contribution of the real estate industry to GDP is 2%. Pakistan's real estate market worth in 2024 is 5.2 trillion in Pakistani rupees and it's equal to US $32 billion in dollars.

Pakistan Real Estate Industry’s Main Contribution City

Pakistan is a big country in terms of area size and human population. 225 million people are living in Pakistan. People are contributing to different forms of real estate industries.

Here, you can see the list of Pakistan's main real estate cities.

Karachi: It is the capital of Sindh province and the biggest city in the country. It is a metropolitan city that generates billions of rupees every year. It has a big real estate industry. Its real estate system runs under the Karachi Development Authority (KDA). The major real estate companies are the Defense Housing Authority and Bahria Town Karachi.

Lahore: Lahore is the 2nd biggest city in Pakistan and the province of Punjab. It is a historical city and famous for its food cuisines. It is the 2nd biggest city in terms of population. Here you can find many local housing societies.

Bahria Town and DHA are the game changers in the construction industry. There are unique and modern living standards in Lahore. You can find modern and old architects in Lahore buildings.

Faisalabad: it is the 3rd biggest city in Pakistan and is famous for its textile industry. There are many small housing societies in Faisalabad While Citi housing is the major key player in real estate.

Rawalpindi: Rawalpindi is another historical city and home of Rajputs. Rawalpindi city is the most secure city in terms of real estate business. Thousands of real estate clients and investors invest in different housing societies in Rawalpindi. The mechanism of real estate works under the “Rawalpindi Development Authority” RDA. Real estate in Rawalpindi is the most advanced real estate industry from an investment point of view. It is the home of Bahria Town Rawalpindi and the Defense Housing Authority. There are many other small housing societies on Chakri Road. It includes city housing, capital smart cities, blue world cities, and many other societies.

Islamabad: Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan. It is the most advanced and beautiful city in terms of nature. Islamabad is a city designed for the cooperate sector and diplomats. There are many public offices in Islamabad. Islamabad real estate is divided into rural and urban real estate. It is an expensive real estate market operating under the rules and regulations of " Capital Development Authority” CDA. There are many real estate housing projects under the Bahria Enclave, Defense Housing, Gulberg Green, and many more small housing societies in Islamabad.

Peshawar: Peshawar is the capital of Khyber Pukhtoon Khawa province. It is the 6th biggest city in the country. Many housing projects are coming into the city. It includes DHA Peshawar, Bahria Town Peshawar, and Citi Housing Peshawar. In the future, Peshawar will be a new real estate market in terms of development and investments.

Quetta: Quetta is the capital city of the Province of Baluchistan. It is a developing city. It will be a new emerging real estate market in the future. Currently, the Defense Housing Authority is a major player in the real estate business in Quetta.

Northern Areas: Northern areas of Pakistan are the most beautiful and home of tourism in Pakistan. However, they are mostly non-developed in terms of real estate. Northern areas include AJK, Murree, KPK areas, and Gilgit Baltistan. It is an underdeveloped real estate and mostly local real estate developers operate in those areas. However, It will be a big boost in the coming years in Pakistan.

Gawadar CPEC: Gawadar is the hotcake port in Pakistan. It is the project of China Pakistan Economic Corridor. This is a game changer for Pakistan real estate and the country. It brings heavy investment in Pakistan. It helps to boost Pakistan's economy.

Shahzad Mughal’s Remarks about Pakistan Cities

The major city is the massive boost in commercial real estate. Because all big cities are developed and linked with road networks. It is potential for real estate investors and clients. While Pakistan many cities are non-developed and lacking to attract real estate investors. It includes Northern areas. Whereas, the Pakistan government needs to develop Quetta and Gadawar to bring more real estate investments in Pakistan. Pakistan's government should focus on Baluchistan province in the real estate sector.

Real Estate Housing Societies in Pakistan 2024

In Pakistan, housing societies are planned residential communities developed by private developers or cooperative societies. These societies offer a range of residential options, including plots, houses, apartments, and villas, along with various amenities and facilities. All public and private sector housing societies operate under development authorities.

Here are some real estate housing societies in Pakistan

1. Bahria Town: Bahria Town is one of the largest and most well-known housing societies in Pakistan, with projects in major cities such as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Islamabad. It offers gated communities with a wide range of residential options, including plots, houses, and apartments, along with amenities like parks, schools, hospitals, and commercial centers.

2. Defense Housing Authority (DHA): DHA is a housing society that operates under arms forces of Pakistan. It has projects in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Quetta, Bahawalpur, and Peshawar offering residential plots, houses, and apartments with modern amenities, security, and community facilities.

3. Capital Smart City: Located near Islamabad, Capital Smart City is a mega real estate project offering smart and sustainable living solutions. It features residential plots, villas, and apartments along with amenities like smart infrastructure, green spaces, educational institutions, and commercial areas. It is close to the new Islamabad airport.

4. Gulberg Islamabad: Gulberg Islamabad is a modern housing society located on the Islamabad Expressway. It offers residential and commercial plots, as well as apartments and farmhouses, with amenities such as parks, schools, mosques, and shopping centers.

5. Lahore Smart City: Lahore Smart City is a new housing project located on the outskirts of Lahore. It aims to provide smart living solutions with modern infrastructure, eco-friendly practices, and advanced technology integration. The project offers residential plots, villas, and apartments along with commercial areas and recreational facilities.

6. Lake City Lahore: Lake City Lahore is a gated community offering residential plots, houses, and apartments. It features a golf course, parks, lakes, schools, hospitals, and commercial centers, providing a comprehensive lifestyle experience to residents.

7. Askari Housing Society: Askari Housing Society is a gated community developed by the Pakistan Army, offering secure and well-planned residential neighborhoods in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Jhelum, and Rawalpindi. It provides a range of housing options along with amenities such as security, parks, mosques, and community centers.

8. Parkview City Islamabad: Parkview City is located in Islamabad near banigala. It offers different sizes of residential and commercial plots. It features a golf course, parks, lakes, schools, hospitals, and commercial centers, providing a comprehensive lifestyle experience to residents.

9. Citi Housing: Citi Housing is a gated community offering residential plots, houses, and apartments. It features a golf course, parks, lakes, Themes Park, schools, hospitals, and commercial centers, providing a comprehensive lifestyle experience to residents. Citi Housing completes its projects in Kharia, Jhelum, Sialkot, Faisalabad, Gujranwala and Peshawar.

10. Blue World City Islamabad: Blue World City Islamabad is a mega housing development project on Chakri Road near the Islamabad Lahore motorway. They are offering residential plots, apartments, villas, and mega commercial complexes. It features a golf course, parks, lakes, Themes Park, and schools. They are planning a sports complex and stadium in the future.

Shahzad Mughal’s Statements About Real Estate Housing Societies in Pakistan

There are new popular real estate housing societies in Pakistan. Each society offers unique features, amenities, and investment opportunities, catering to the diverse needs and preferences of residents and investors. Potential buyers need to conduct thorough research and consider factors such as location, amenities, developer reputation, and prospects before investing in any housing society.

Remember! Few housing societies all over Pakistan are illegal. They attract real estate clients and investors with marketing campaigns. However, they do not have enough land and resources for development. Make sure you check the status of housing societies before investing. The best way to contact local development authorities in particular areas and cities.

Housing Development Authorities Pakistan

In Pakistan, the Real estate industry works under the development authorities. Housing Development Authorities (HDAs) are government agencies responsible for the planning, development, and management of housing projects aimed at addressing the housing needs of the population. These authorities work under the jurisdiction of provincial or federal governments and play a crucial role in providing affordable housing solutions to the citizens. It is a government institution that can ban housing projects.

Here are some Housing Development Authorities in Pakistan:

1. Capital Development Authority (CDA): The Capital Development Authority is responsible for the planning and development of the federal capital, Islamabad. It managed the development of residential sectors, commercial areas, parks, and infrastructure projects in the city.

2. Lahore Development Authority (LDA): LDA is the primary agency responsible for urban planning and development in Lahore, the provincial capital of Punjab. It regulates land use, granting approvals for housing schemes, and implementing development projects in the city.

3. Karachi Development Authority (KDA): KDA is responsible for urban planning and development in Karachi, the largest city and economic hub of Pakistan. It supervises the development of residential, commercial, and industrial projects, as well as infrastructure development in the city and road networks.

4. Rawalpindi Development Authority (RDA): RDA is responsible for urban planning and development in Rawalpindi; it regulates land use, grants approvals for housing schemes, and undertakes infrastructure projects to facilitate urban growth.

5. Peshawar Development Authority (PDA): PDA is responsible for urban planning and development in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. It supervises the development of residential, commercial, and industrial projects, as well as infrastructure development in the city.

6. Gujranwala Development Authority (GDA): GDA is responsible for urban planning and development in Gujranwala, an industrial city in Punjab province. It regulates land use, grants approvals for housing schemes, and undertakes infrastructure projects to support urban growth and development.

7. Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA): The FDA is responsible for all rules and regulations of urban planning and development in Faisalabad, it is an industrial city in Punjab province. It oversees the development of residential, commercial, and industrial projects, as well as infrastructure development to cater to the city's growing population.

Shahzad Mughal’s Statements about Housing Development Authorities in Pakistan

Housing development Authorities are government of Pakistan bodies. It works under province constitutions. All authorities are independent in Pakistan and responsible for managing its areas. They have a crucial role in urban planning, housing development, and infrastructure projects to meet the evolving needs of urban populations.

All these authorities work towards providing affordable housing options, promoting sustainable development, and improving the quality of life for residents in their respective cities.

All housing societies plan and develop lands according to the rules and regulations.

Housing Development Authorities need to develop a strong communication system with real estate investors and clients to deal with fraud in the real estate business. It should be an open communication system and complaints cell.

Challenges in Pakistani Real Estate Market In 2024

Pakistan's real estate industry faces different challenges all the time. The reason is the unrealistic policies of different governments. There are different factors both external and internal destroyed the Pakistani real estate market since 2021. It seems Pakistan's real estate market will see more tougher time in 2024 for many reasons. All real estate stakeholders face problems in the Pakistani real estate market. It will divert real estate overseas investment from Pakistan in the year 2022-23.

Here, is a list of some external and internal factors cause challenges in Pakistan's real estate market in 2024.

1. Economic Uncertainty: Economic instability can significantly impact the real estate market. Economic factors such as inflation, currency devaluation, exchange rates, and changes in interest rates can affect property prices, demand, and investment in Pakistan.

The Pakistani economy is lacking because of political instability in the country. When there is political instability in the country. It impacts imports and exports, stock exchanges, and foreign investments. Foreign investments need a stable environment.

2. Regulatory Environment: Regulatory changes or uncertainties related to land acquisition, zoning laws, and taxation policies can create challenges for developers, investors, and buyers. Lack of clarity or consistency in regulations may deter investment and hinder market growth.

Unfortunately, In Pakistan regulatory authorities work under the personalities, not under the rules and regulations. There is no national policy to manage resources. The property valuation system evaluates lands and properties in unrealistic ways. It devalues real estate properties.

3. Political Instability: Political instability is a normal thing in Pakistan. There are no strong roots and practices in the political system. All politicians like to get power. Political instability negatively impacts investor confidence and disrupts business operations in the real estate sector.

Uncertainty surrounding government policies and political tensions may lead to a slowdown in investment and development activities. In Pakistan, real estate business growth depends on overseas Pakistani investments. Currencies exchange rate affects political instabilities.

4. Infrastructure Deficiencies:Inadequate infrastructure such as transportation networks, utilities, and basic amenities can limit the attractiveness of certain real estate markets. Challenges related to infrastructure development and maintenance may affect property values and hinder the growth of certain areas.

Pakistan's major cities have solid infrastructure. However, many cities need ring road projects to bring more key players in real estate.

5. Security Concerns: Security challenges and perceptions of safety can impact real estate investment decisions, particularly in regions affected by conflict or instability. In Pakistan, cities like Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta, and Gawadar always remain under security threats from borders and sectarianism. Security risks may deter potential buyers and investors from investing in certain areas, leading to decreased demand and lower property values.

6. Housing Affordability: Despite the demand for housing, affordability remains a significant challenge in Pakistan. High property prices, limited access to mortgage financing, and income inequality can restrict access to home ownership for many individuals and families.

In the Pakistani real estate market, lack of knowledge and government policies. Property remains devalued because of unrealistic property valuations. It goes out of reach from the local Pakistani public.

7. Transparency and Governance: Transparency issues, including corruption, lack of accountability, and informal property transactions, can undermine investor confidence and impede market growth in Pakistan.

In Pakistan government needs to improve transparency and governance within the real estate sector is essential for attracting investment and fostering sustainable development.

8. Impact of External Factors: External factors such as global economic trends, geopolitical tensions, and natural disasters can also affect the Pakistani real estate market. Changes in global economic conditions or shifts in investor preferences may influence market dynamics and investment patterns. However, it has less impact on Pakistan's real estate market because most people use savings in the real estate business.

9. Regulatory Framework: The real estate industry in Pakistan operates within a regulatory framework governed by federal and provincial laws. The regulatory environment has undergone reforms in recent years aimed at improving transparency, reducing speculation, and protecting the rights of buyers and sellers. However, there is no law for realtors and real estate investing protection.

It requires the protection of all real estate stakeholders from the government. It helps to boost the confidence of key players.

Shahzad Mughal’s Statement “Challenges in Real Estate Industry 2024”

Pakistan real estate despite of potential, now the real estate industry in Pakistan faces several challenges, including regulatory complexities, legal disputes, land acquisition issues, lack of transparency, economic growth, and political instability in 2024. These challenges can hinder investment and slow down the pace of development in the sector.

These are some of the potential challenges that the Pakistani real estate market could face in 2024. Addressing these challenges would require concerted efforts from government authorities, policymakers, industry stakeholders, and investors to create a stable environment for sustainable growth and development in the real estate sector. It requires a stable real estate policy for long-term growth. No doubt Pakistan real estate adds 2% to GDP.

Opportunities in Pakistani Real Estate Market 2024

Pakistan's real estate market has been facing tough time for the last 3 years. However, the Pakistani real estate market continues to offer various opportunities for investors, developers, and other stakeholders despite challenges.

Here are some key opportunities in the Pakistani real estate market in 2024:

• Technology Adoption: The adoption of technology is gradually transforming the Pakistan real estate industry. There are many online platforms, mobile applications, and digital marketing tools that are being increasingly used by real estate agents, developers, and property buyers to streamline transactions, access information, and market properties more efficiently.

The good thing is that Pakistani communities welcome changes in technology. However, remains a threat from the government to ban social media. it can cause sales to decrease. Because Pakistani real estate professionals use social sites for communication.

• Future Outlook: The future outlook for the Pakistan real estate industry remains positive, driven by factors such as demographic trends, urbanization, infrastructure investments, technological advancements, and government policies aimed at promoting sustainable development. However, addressing regulatory challenges, improving transparency, and enhancing investor confidence will be crucial for unlocking the real estate sector's full potential.

• Investment Opportunities: The Pakistan real estate market offers diverse investment opportunities across various segments, including residential housing, commercial buildings, retail spaces, industrial estates, agricultural real estate, and mixed-use developments. Overseas Pakistani investment in real estate is a key factor to promote investing culture.

• Infrastructure Development: Infrastructure development projects play a crucial role in shaping the real estate landscape in Pakistan. Investments in transportation networks, utilities, and urban amenities contribute to the appreciation of property values and stimulate demand for real estate in both residential and commercial sectors.

The concept of ring road networks and CPEC project completion will be a big opportunity in real estate sectors to promote real estate business.

Affordable Housing: There is a significant demand for affordable housing in Pakistan due to rapid urbanization and population growth. Developers and investors can capitalize on this opportunity by focusing on affordable housing projects targeting low and middle-income segments of the population.

Government Housing Projects for poor people promote the real estate sector in Pakistan. It can bring people out of poverty.

Smart Cities and Infrastructure Development: The development of smart cities and infrastructure projects presents lucrative opportunities in the Pakistani real estate market. It increasing urbanization and the need for sustainable urban development, there is a growing demand for smart infrastructure, green buildings, and integrated urban planning solutions.

Investments in transportation networks, utilities, and amenities can contribute to the growth of smart cities in Pakistan. It helps people to get access to different areas.

Mixed-Use Developments: In Pakistan, mixed-use developments combining residential, commercial, retail, and recreational components offer attractive investment opportunities in the Pakistani real estate market. It covers fewer spaces and generates more revenue. In Pakistan, such integrated projects provide a holistic lifestyle experience, including live-work-play environments, and are in high demand among urban consumers.

Developers can leverage this trend by planning and executing well-designed mixed-use projects in strategic locations.

Commercial Real Estate: Despite economic uncertainties in Pakistan, the commercial real estate sector in Pakistan continues to offer opportunities, particularly in key urban centers such as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad.

Demand for office spaces, retail outlets, and commercial complexes remains strong, driven by corporate expansion, retail growth, and increasing consumer spending. Investors can explore opportunities in Grade-A office buildings, shopping malls, and mixed-use commercial projects. Big population size is a key factor in the development of commercial real estate.

Real Estate Technology (Prop Tech): The adoption of technology in the real estate sector, also known as Prop Tech, presents opportunities for innovation and disruption. Digital platforms, online marketplaces, and property management solutions are reshaping the way real estate transactions are conducted in Pakistan. Investors and entrepreneurs can explore opportunities in Prop Tech startups, software development, and digital marketing services tailored to the real estate industry.

Tourism and Hospitality: Pakistan's emerging tourism sector offers opportunities for investment in hospitality and leisure real estate projects. With its diverse landscapes, cultural heritage, and untapped tourism potential, Pakistan is attracting domestic and international tourists. Developers can capitalize on this trend by investing in hotels, resorts, vacation homes, and other tourism-related properties in scenic destinations across the country.

In Pakistan, Real estate societies focus on theme park development. Moreover, Hotels, accommodation, and funfair culture are promoted in Pakistan. Government Incentives and Policy Support: Government initiatives aimed at promoting investment in the real estate sector, such as tax incentives, regulatory reforms, and infrastructure development programs, create favorable conditions for investors. Developers can benefit from government subsidies, incentives, and streamlined approval processes for real estate projects.

Infrastructure Development: Infrastructure development is a key focus of the current government. Infrastructure development projects, including transportation networks, utilities, and urban amenities, present opportunities for investment and partnership in the Pakistani real estate market.

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in infrastructure projects can contribute to the growth of the real estate sector and support sustainable urban development.

Shahzad Mughal’s Statements “Opportunities in Pakistani Real Estate Market 2024”

Pakistan's real estate market has faced challenges for the last three years. However, the Pakistani real estate market offers diverse opportunities across various segments, including affordable housing, smart cities, mixed-use developments, commercial real estate, Prop Tech, tourism, hospitality culture, and infrastructure. Technological advancement and road networks close people, culture, and cities.

Regarding the usage of technology, investors and developers need to conduct thorough market research, assess risks, and align their strategies with market trends and government priorities to capitalize on these opportunities effectively in the Pakistani real estate market. The advancement of technology is a big opportunity in Pakistan's real estate market to get knowledge and information.

Research and Development in the Pakistan Real Estate Market

Research and development initiatives are necessary in Pakistan's real estate industry. R and Development in the real estate market in Pakistan should focus on various aspects aimed at improving efficiency, sustainability, affordability, and market transparency.

Here are some areas where research and development activities may be taking place in the Pakistani real estate market:

1. Market Analysis and Forecasting: In Pakistan, it is rare to analyze the real estate market and forecast. Research organizations, consulting firms, and academic institutions conduct studies to analyze market trends, forecast demand-supply dynamics, and assess investment opportunities in different segments of the real estate market. These analyses help developers, investors, and policymakers make informed decisions.

Unfortunately, only a few realtors in Pakistan talk about market analysis and forecasting.

2. Technology Integration: Research and development efforts focus on integrating technology into various aspects of the real estate sector, including property management, construction techniques, marketing, and transaction processes.

Technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM), Virtual Reality (VR), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are being explored to improve efficiency and productivity in the industry.

3. Sustainable Development: To bring sustainability in real estate development needs to increase awareness of environmental issues, there is a growing emphasis on sustainable development practices in the real estate sector. Research and development initiatives focus on green building technologies, energy-efficient designs, waste management strategies, and renewable energy integration to minimize the environmental impact of real estate projects.

4. Affordable Housing Solutions: Addressing the housing affordability crisis is a priority for researchers and developers in Pakistan. Research and development efforts aim to identify innovative approaches to reduce construction costs, optimize land use, and provide affordable housing solutions for low and middle-income segments of the population.

5. Policy Analysis and Reform: Researchers and think tanks analyze existing policies and regulations governing the real estate sector to identify gaps, inefficiencies, and areas for improvement. Research and development findings are used to advocate for policy reforms that promote transparency, enhance investor confidence, and facilitate sustainable growth in the industry in terms of prices and developments.

6. Urban Planning and Infrastructure Development: Research and development activities in urban planning and infrastructure development focus on addressing challenges related to urbanization, population growth, and infrastructure deficiencies. Researchers work on developing comprehensive urban development plans, transportation solutions, and infrastructure projects to support sustainable urban growth.

This development and planning help to design housing societies and development in modern ways and environmentally friendly.

7. Consumer Behavior and Preferences: Understanding consumer behavior and preferences is essential for developers and marketers in the real estate sector. Researchc and development efforts involve conducting surveys, focus groups, and market studies to gather insights into buyer preferences, lifestyle trends, and demand drivers, which inform project design and marketing strategies.

Consumer behavior and preferences help government and housing societies to give direction to the real estate business with the needs of the public. It is a good way to control the demand and supply equation.

8. Data Analytics and Market Intelligence: Research and Development initiatives leverage data analytics and market intelligence tools to analyze large datasets, extract actionable insights, and identify emerging market trends. These insights help stakeholders make data-driven decisions regarding investment, development, and marketing strategies.

Shahzad Mughal’s Statement” Research and Development in Pakistan Real Estate Market”

Pakistan's real estate market needs study of research and development. Because research and development play a crucial role in driving innovation, improving efficiency, and fostering sustainable growth in the real estate market in Pakistan. Collaborative efforts between government agencies, private sector stakeholders, and research institutions are essential to address the diverse challenges and opportunities facing the real estate industry.


Pakistan's real estate industry is no doubt facing a crisis because of political instability and economic growth. Poor Economic growth, high exchange rates, interest rates, and government policies Disappoint real estate investors. Moreover, the Lack of transparency in the real estate business and development from housing societies divert overseas real estate investments from the Pakistani real estate market. Furthermore, unrealistic real estate property valuation from FBR devalues real estate property. It causes a big remove of people from real estate investments.

Despite off many issues in Pakistan's real estate industry. Pakistan real estate has many opportunities in the Pakistani market. There is a strong infrastructure of technology, population size, communication network, Transportation network and use of modern technology can drive real estate in Pakistan.

Pakistan's big cities Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, and Rawalpindi are mature real estate markets. There is a big opportunity to invest in the commercial real estate market in these cities.

Gawadar, Quetta, Peshawar, and the Northern area's real estate market is the big potential for real estate stakeholders to invest in these areas.

The tourism and hospitality industry along with construction will be a boost for real estate sectors.

The real estate sector in 2024 requires stable government real estate policy and transparent property valuation allover

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  1. Nice Comprehensive Studies about "pakistan real estate market analysis and forecaste 2024

  2. pakistan real estate market is struggling becasue of governments and economy.

  3. Great post, much appreciate the time you took to write this.